Meinl percussion cajon
The Meinl percussion Cajon drawer or simply box is a musical instrument afroperuano or Peruvian origin, which has become popular worldwide thanks to modern jazz, flamenco, and new music Afro-Latin-Caribbean. There is documented data on the existence of the cajón since the mid-nineteenth century.
The box was officially recognized in Peru as « Cultural Patrimony of the Nation » in 2001. It is one of the few musical instruments where the artist sits on it and this transmits the rhythm to the body of the cajones.
The instrument was born in the central and northern coast of Peru and the way of playing it accompanied by the guitar is a Peruvian creation. Creole and black customs are visible in Peruvian coastal music.
History of Meinl percussion cajon
The origin of the instrument is Afro-Peruvian, that is to say, that it was created by the black slaves in Peru, during the Spanish colonization, due to the prohibition that weighed on them to execute their drums
The use of drums was forbidden by the Catholic Church to be considered pagan and also banned by an edict of the Viceroyalty of Peru in order to avoid communication at a distance between blacks (talking drums) and prevent them from playing the panalivio, a type of song black woman who showed in lamentations her conditions of slave: all found drum was burned. Towards 1813 all reference of the drum in virreinales documents disappears and it appears towards 1850 the first references to the drawer like a musical instrument.
Since percussion was the main and divine factor of all African music, black slaves were forced to look for instruments, with which they could express themselves. African slaves saw, soon, in the wooden crates, used to transport merchandise, a great instrument of percussion, using them in their sacred rites and in their different artistic manifestations.
Given the prohibition issued in the seventeenth century of using the drum, they used any element to produce a sound such as wooden spoons, chairs, tables, boxes of alms or Czech (a hollow pumpkin about 60 centimeters in diameter, with a hole in the back)
The Afro-Peruvian ethnic group comes from the union of African ethnic groups (bene, Yoruba, Bantu, Congo, etc.), who came to America as slaves, torn from their native land. Enemy ethnic groups in Africa, but in America, tried to put aside their differences, in order to obtain the desired freedom.
It is important to note that Afro-Peruvian population until the nineteenth century were majority throughout the coast and therefore strongly influenced it, until 1890, when the Afro-Peruvian population began to decrease. Perhaps from that time, when blacks mostly influenced, that phrase so common in Peru was coined: “He who has no inga, has Mandinga”, which clearly depicts the expansion and influence exercised by the African people throughout all the Peruvian territory.
The Peruvian Cajon
“III INTERNATIONAL FESTIVAL OF CAJÓN PERUANO”
The Percussion Festival that has the Peruvian Cajón which is a percussion instrument of Afro-Peruvian origin as host.
It is a week of concerts, lectures, video shows, music clinics and master classes that have percussion as the protagonist.
Different genres and schools, a variety of instruments: Cajon, drums, congas, timbale, box, marimba, Indian tabla, tambourine, Czech, pandeiro, symphonic percussion and more.
Also on the premises is the sale of CDs, DVDs, instruments, books, and material related to the world of cajón, percussion and music in general.
Cajón: xylophone drum of the idiophone family. Parallelepiped wood with an exit hole in the back.
Drum, in a broad sense of the word, is usually understood: “a percussive instrument whose sound is obtained by striking directly and externally on the hollow and resonant body that constitutes it, either on a particular place in its box or on another part especially destined for that purpose. ” According to this organological meaning of the drum, equivalent to an instrument percucible on the outside of its resonant box, would be understood among the drums to the so-called wooden drums or xylophones and even some kind of percussive idiophones.
We say xylophones or xylophone, adjusting ourselves to the Greek roots of the word, in a generic and proper sense, and not in the improper and restricted marimba, which in Europe is called xylophone par excellence because it is really a wooden sound instrument. Thus, such instruments can be called xylophones, if only the etymological element of the word and a sense are dealt with exactly and rigorously.
The drawer is a wooden parallelepiped with an exit hole in the back and which is usually struck from the front. While until recently time the drawer was an instrument rarely used outside of Peru, in our country it reached protagónicos levels. His work is not that of a monotonous accompaniment instrument, but that of a principal instrument that nuances, accompanies and performs alone.
It is impressive to see the wealth adaptability and functionality of this instrument and the techniques of construction. That is what allowed the cajón to become our main percussion instrument.
In no country in the world did the cajón take root as deep as in Peru. Due to its richness and frequency of use, its adaptability, functionality, construction techniques, the place it was able to conquer among Peruvians and, above all, the development achieved by the musicians of our land in the execution of this instrument, He became our main percussion instrument. The rhythmic development reached by Afro-Peruvians and the diffusion of the cajón to music from the coast of Peru and now the world is remarkable.
Meinl wood drawers – Natural
- Rubber tree wood (Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-Arg.)
- Integrated rattle effect – Cajón Flamenco
- Anti-slip surface
- Natural lacquer with gloss
- Includes Allen key
- The HCAJ1 is an intermediate Thomann solution between the level of initiation and professional
- A very successful model for its optics, the numerous benefits such as the rattle effect and its reduced price
- Measures: 30cm x 30cm x 44cm
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Details of the work
Place of Presentation
Cultural Center of Spain in Lima – PerúJr. Natalia Sánchez 181 – In front of Washington Square. (Cdra. 6 Av. Arequipa, Lima)
FROM 9 TO 18 APRIL 2010Additional concerts 23, 24, 25 and 30
Title of the Work
“III INTERNATIONAL FESTIVAL OF CAJÓN PERUANO”
Outstanding Peruvian percussionist and drummer internationally recognized. It comes from the musical family Neciosup. Alex has managed to combine, in well-conjugated doses, technique and feeling, that’s why he is among the greats of percussion. While he is recognized as a drummer Alex also ventures successfully in the drawer and is also the creator of his own model. Without a doubt, maestro Alex Acuña is our most outstanding percussionist worldwide.
ALGENDONES FARFAN, JULIO “CHOCOLATE” (DECEASED) For many years he moved in the folkloric streams. It could be said that it is the first cajonero that participates in the proposals called Fusion. In his works, he includes, cajon, congas, and bongo. He passed away on July 26, 2004.
ARCINIEGA, VICTOR “HOOK” (DECEASED) Cajonero of yesteryear. He seconded Francisco Monserrate in the use of the drawer to accompany the waltz. A great connoisseur of the marinara and the polka. He was a member of the musical group “Ricardo Palma” and the protagonist of many memorable jaranas. It is considered one of the largest cajones of all time.
BALCAZAR, EDUARDO Cajonero of northern descent of great inspiration when he plays tondero and sailor from the north. His father and uncle formed “Los Hermanos Balcazar”, a renowned duo in Chiclayo, in the department of Lambayeque, north of Peru.
BARRENECHEA “CANINO”, REYNALDO (DECEASED) Cajonero de antaño. He joined the group “La Cuadrilla Morena”. He made his last works with the guitarist Oscar Avilés. Accompanied all the coastal genres. He was the first to record with cajón in Andean music. He was also a singer of marinara limeña. He died in 2002.
CAMPOS DE LA COLINA, RONALDO (DECEASED) Cajonero and zapateado born in Cañete. After integrating “Pancho Fierro”, “Cumanana” and the group ” Theater and Dance of Black Peru” founded “Black Peru” group of dance and Afro – Peruvian music and it travels around the world showing their artistic proposal. Ronaldo is the creator of many touches or box beats that are used today. Definitely, his name is among the largest Peruvian cajones. He died in August 2001 and at the rhythm of boxes, he was buried in the cemetery of Lurin, south of Lima.
CAMPOS, MARCOS Cajonero, percussionist and zapateado. Son of Ronaldo Campos. He has been living in Mexico for 10 years where he accompanies the singer Tania Libertad.
CAMPOS RONNY Youngest son of maestro Ronaldo, zapateado and percussionist. The current director of Peru Negro.
CAVERO, ARTURO “Sambo” Singer, cajonero, and percussionist. For years he was a percussionist of Caribbean music. Then he was “discovered” for Peruvian music by Oscar Avilés. From that encounter, guitar, cajón, and voices, the best Creole duo of recent times is produced. The taste and feeling of Cavero make him an extraordinary interpreter of waltzes and celebrations.
CASANOVA, LUIS He started as a dancer and later ventures into percussion. It is located in the United States.
DONGO, MARIA DEL CARMEN She starts playing percussion with the drum and then moves to the drawer. For years he accompanies prominent Peruvian performers and makes recordings. In the year 2000, he started a campaign for the Peruvian State to recognize the cajón as the Cultural Patrimony of the Nation. It accomplishes its mission and celebrates it in an important ceremony on October 31, 2001, held at the “Auditorium Nicomedes Santa Cruz” of the Exhibition Park in Lima.
GONZALES, FERNANDO Several members of the Gonzales family dedicated themselves to art. Fernando very young income to the group of Victoria Santa Cruz later participated in the Afro ballet “Black Expression” to then found “Ebony and Ivory.” He started in the dance and was then in the drawer.
LAZÓN “POMADITA”, GERARDO (DECEASED) For years he was a stable member of the television music groups. Accompanied the interpreters of Creole music with his drawer thrown.
LETURIA “COCKY”, JORGE Cajonero who for years has accompanied with his touches to many interpreters of Afro-Peruvian and Creole music.
LOBATÓN “Huevito”, FREDDY Cajonero and zapateado. He is also a composer of several celebrations and zamacuecas. It comes from the Clan of the Lobatón whose members are dedicated to Afro-Peruvian dance, song, and music.
MEDRANO COTITO, JUAN Cajonero, and composer, also dedicated to teaching. His journey in percussion goes from traditional music to genres called Fusion. He has formed various groups and accompanied without a number of interpreters.
MONSERRATE “La Maquina”, FRANCISCO (DECEASED) 1882 – 1957. He stood out for his skill and perfection. He worked in his last years with the compiler Rosa Mercedes Ayarza de Morales. For connoisseurs, it is the best cajonero of Peruvian music. He made the first tests of waltz accompaniment with a box at the end of the forties. He had a very long repertoire of punches and touches as well as being extremely quick to improvise. In the book El Cajon Afroperuano I said “no recording record is known”, however, the cajonisticólogo Marco Aurelio Denegri gave me a cassette tape with several songs played by Monserratte. It is difficult to get the original recordings that were made between 1950 and 1956.
NICASIO FEBRES, MACARIO Percussionist. Son of the “Child”. It has an impressive rhythmic sense. He has taken his knowledge through folkloric, experimental and salsa groups. He is considered one of the great Peruvian percussionists. Although he prefers leathers, he also masters the drawer techniques.
It is possibly the Peruvian Cajon who has been most concerned with flamenco research. He also dedicates himself to pedagogic work and is a professor of university workshops and of the Higher School of Folklore. She is probably one of the first women who dedicated herself to playing cajón; currently, it continues in activity but with very little promotion. I met her in the mid-seventies.
PARODI “Gigi”, LEONARDO Outstanding percussionist. “Even though I’m not black, I think I’ve earned a place among Peruvian cajones,” he said more than once. For some years he formed “Armonía criolla”, which the band left behind to dedicate themselves to accompanying various interpreters of the song.
RAMÍREZ, ARISTIDES (FALLECIDO) Cajonero of yesteryear. Member of the group of Bartola Sancho Davila “the flower of malambo”. His last recordings were made with the group “Fiesta Criolla”. It is one of the great cajones of the golden age of the Peruvian Creole music.
SIRIO “Pititi”, EUSEBIO
(FALLECIDO) Fine cajonero accompanying the best afroperuna music performers of the last thirty years. Without a doubt, he is considered one of the last great masters of the cajón. A brain tumor deprives him of sight but not of the ability to continue delivering his art. Unfortunately, his illness worsened and he died in April 2001.
SOTO DE LA COLINA, CARLOS “Castro” (DEAD) Born in Cañete, south of Lima, in 1934. This cajonero, singer, composer, actor, and dancer has taken his art to many corners of the world with the Pancho Fierro group, with Nicomedes Santa Cruz, Chabuca Granda and Peru Negro. In the middle of the seventies, he gave a box to the Andalusian guitarist Paco de Lucia who introduced him to his musical group. With this fact, the cajón would conquer Spain.
VALDELOMAR, FELIX Percussionist belonging to the Creole family of Valdelomar. He is an accompanying musician, with his brother José Francisco a vocal couple. His father and uncle formed a duo of singers.
VALIENTE, ALFREDO Outstanding percussionist who for years fulfilled work in the different nightspots of shows in Lima. He returned to Peru after several years of filing abroad.
VÁSQUEZ DÍAZ, ABELARDO (DECEASED) Singing, dancing, and percussion were, among others, the attributes of Abelardo. He is one of the children of Porfirio, the fourth of 9 brothers, 6 of them dedicated to music. Knowledgeable about the secrets of the cajón, the Czech and the congas. In his final years, he preferred the box as a companion to his songs. He was, without a doubt, the last great dancer and singer of the Jarana Limeña (Marinera). He dedicated himself to teaching for more than thirty years. Abelardo was the link between his generation and the most recent ones. He died in April 2001.
VASQUEZ DIAZ “Don Ojo”,
OSVALDO (FALLECIDO) Great cajonero and zapateado. Son of Don Porfirio. Unrivaled at the time of accompanying the sailor and zamacueca with its drawer. It was the rejoneador par excellence of Clan de los Vásquez.
VASQUEZ GOYONECHE “Mangue”, MANUEL Percussionist and zapateado. Son of Abelardo. It stands out in the touch of the drawer.
VASQUEZ GOYONECHE “Juanchi”, JUAN CARLOS Percussionist, son of Abelardo. Lately more dedicated to congas than to the drawer. He currently lives in Mexico where he is part of the Tania Libertad musical group.
VÁSQUEZ, JULIO (DECEASED) Owner of a great rhythmic sense. The accompaniment of the waltz in the hands and drawer of July charged a higher level. He died in 2002.
VILLALOBOS PEPE He is also a guitarist and composer of popular songs from the contemporary repertoire of Peruvian music.
ZAMBRANO, MOISÉS Cajonero, and zapateado of great level. His career practically developed with the group “Teatro y Danzas Negros del Perú” and later with the “National Folklore Ensemble”. He is currently retired from artistic activity.
Other prominent cajones and percussionists:
MARCOS MOSQUERA VILLEGAS, ventures into percussion at an early age, prefers congas, bongo, and Cajon.
ALDO BORJAS, a flamenco dancer, has also participated many times as a cajonero and percussionist.
GERARDO BARAHONA, singer and interpreter of the Cajon in the duo Los Hermanos Barahona “
GUSTAVO VILLEGAS, the drummer, has also dabbled in the box.
CALI FLORES starts in the charango and the Andean and Latin-American music, then continues as a percussionist and also ventures into the cajón.
ROBERTO “CHINO” BOLAÑOS, has been in the USA for many years.
HUGO BRAVO, percussionist, on some occasions he has also played cajón.
JOSE LUIS CARRILLO
TOÑO GONZALES Cajonero and singer who lives in Argentina.
MIGUEL “BAM BAM” MIRANDA, among many others accompanied the “Chonducos” 1982
HERMANOS JORGE and MARIO AGÜERO
PEDRO “PERICO” DIAZ,
JORGE VILLANUEVA “CHAPULIN”
FRANCISCO FLORES “PANCHO CALIENTE” (DECEASED)
MOISÉS GOYONECHE “chancaca” (DECEASED)
CORDOVA “EL PIBE PIANO” (DECEASED)
JUVER (HOOVER) REYES Cajonero and outstanding percussionist, his work ranges from folklore to rock groups.
PEDRO LÓPEZ Cajonero of the department of Lambayeque
MARCO ANTONIO ROLDAN of Lambayeque
MELCHOR LOBATON de Chincha (DEAD)
CARLOS BAHAMONDE from the musical center “Carlos Saco” (FALLECIDO) Cajonero who accompanied various performers in the 1940s, including the Hermnos Ascoy.
JUAN PEÑA LOBATÓN cajonero and composer of the musical center “Callao” in the fifties. (PASSED AWAY)
THE “ZAMBO” URRESTI cajonero, played in the first celebration of the Day of the Creole Song (31-10- 1944) (DECEASED)
JOSÉ DE LA CRUZ He starts in percussion and is currently dedicated to singing.
JAIR SANTA CRUZLima 1984. He lives in Madrid. He has executed the cajón since he was a young man and has made presentations with Hermanos Santa Cruz and Victoria Santa Cruz. He has worked as a teacher of the school cajón workshop.
GABRIEL HERNANDEZ GUERRA cajonero y cantor. He is currently a stable member of the Peña “Don Porfirio”
GAMBOA, GINO He joined the group “Armonia Criolla”, then emigrated abroad and is dedicated to the construction of cajones and percussion instruments.
RODOLFO MUÑOZ. Share the cajón with the Cuban percussion, it resides in France.
JULIO ROMERO Apparently recorded with Salerno and Gamarra in the late twenties.
VICTOR REGALADO He recorded with Saenz, Almenerio and the Ascuez brothers in some productions of the late twenties.
The Ballumbrosio Family
Amador Ballumbrosio “Chevo”, percussion teacher at the circus school “La Tarumba” in Lima.
Roberto Ballumbrosio, percussion teacher at the circus school “La Tarumba” in Lima.
César Ballumbrosio, percussion teacher at the “La Recoleta” school, in Lima.
Filomeno Ballumbrosio, singer and percussionist of the group “Combo Loco” in North Carolina USA.
Camilo Ballumbrosio, percussionist of the group ” Fusión Español “, 09/20/72 Madrid- Spain
José Ballumbrosio, professor of percussion (cajón), member of the Afro-Peruvian group “Chincha”, director of the association “Candela” (promotes Afro-Peruvian culture in France ) in Lyon – France
Miguel Ballumbrosio, percussion and cajón teacher, maker of percussion instruments (cajón, cajita, batá cajón, etc.). Member of the Afro-Peruvian group “Chinchivi” in Paris- France
Among the women stand out:
ZOILA GARCÍA CAMPOS
THE SISTERS PETA and CATA ROBLES IZQUIERDO, drawers and zapateadoras.
Featured Cuban cajoneros:
THEY WERE DOMINGO VEGA BACALAO, “CHACHA”.
- ROSARIO OVIEDO “MALANGA” (DECEASED)
Dancer. Matanzas 1885 – Morón 1923. Nicknamed “Malanga”. Extraordinary dancer, amazed when I use the technique of knives, the glass of rum in the head and other spectacular. His most famous dance partner was the legendary Andréa Baró.
Spanish Cajoneros featured:
- RUBEM DANTAS
He is considered Spanish because of his proximity to Paco de Lucia but he is really born in Brazil. He was also the one who introduced the use of the cajón in Spain.
ISRAEL SUAREZ “PIRAÑA”
MANUEL SOLER (DECEASED) He was born in 1943 and died in Seville on June 5, 2003, at the age of 60.
ANTONIO CARMONA Born in Granada in 1965. Connoisseur of the “pure flamenco” has ventured into the streams of fusion with “Ketama”.
AMADOR LOZADA Professor of cajón at “Casa Patas” in Madrid.
Conclusions – Critical Appraisal
Just as there is an ” official history ” in Peru that practically excludes Afro-Peruvians from the country’s past life, there is also a position of non-recognition of their contributions; In the case of the cajón, this contribution is clear, forceful and indisputable, the cajón is a real and vital element of the resistance of the Afro-Peruvians.
It is a very attractive and culturally rich work that must be appreciated by all Peruvians at a national level and even worldwide, it is a work that gives to notice the fusion of cultures from 2 continents such as Africa and America and demonstrating the great national talent.